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    Melanoma of the eye

    Malignant melanoma - choroid; Malignant melanoma - eye; Eye tumor; Ocular melanoma

    Melanoma of the eye is cancer that occurs in various parts of the eye.

    Causes

    Melanoma is a very aggressive type of cancer that can spread rapidly.

    Melanoma of the eye can affect several parts of the eye, including the:

    • Choroid
    • Ciliary body
    • Conjunctiva
    • Eyelid
    • Iris
    • Orbit

    The choroid layer is the most likelysite of melanoma in the eye.

    The cancer may only be in the eye. Or it may spread (metastasize) to another location in the body, most commonly the liver. Melanoma can also begin on the skin or other organs in the body and spread to the eye.

    Melanoma is the most common type of eye tumor in adults. Even so, melanoma that starts inthe eye is rare.

    Too muchexposure to sunlight is an important risk factor. Persons who have fair-skin and blue eyes are most affected.

    Symptoms

    • Bulging eyes
    • Change in iris color
    • Poor vision in one eye
    • Red, painful eye
    • Small defect on the iris or conjunctiva

    In some cases, there may be no symptoms.

    Exams and Tests

    An eye examination with an ophthalmoscope may reveal a single round or oval lump (tumor) in the eye.

    Tests that may be orderedinclude:

    • Cranial CT scan to look for spread (metastasis) to the brain
    • Eye ultrasound
    • MRI of the head to look forspread (metastasis) to the brain
    • Skin biopsy if there is an affected area on the skin

    Treatment

    Small melanomas may be treated with:

    • Laser
    • Radiation therapy (brachytherapy)

    Surgery toremove the eye (enucleation) may be needed.

    Other treatments that may be used are chemotherapyy or biological therapy (interferon).

    Support Groups

    You can ease the stress of illness by joining acancer support group. Sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help you not feel alone.

    Outlook (Prognosis)

    The outcome for melanoma of the eye depends on the size of the cancer when it is diagnosed. Most patients survive at least 5 years from the time of diagnosis if the cancer has not spread outside the eye.

    If the cancer has spread outside the eye, the chance of survival is much lower.

    • Distortion or loss of vision
    • Retinal detachment
    • Spread of the tumor to other areas of the body

    When to Contact a Medical Professional

    Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you have symptoms of melanoma of the eye.

    Prevention

    The most important way to prevent eye melanoma is toprotect the eyes fromsunlight, especially between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m., when the sun's rays are most intense. Wear sunglasses that have ultraviolet protection.

    A yearly eye exam is recommended.

    References

    Lange JR, Fecher LA, Sharfman WH, et al. Melanoma. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Niederhuber JE, et al., eds. Abeloff’s Clinical Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 73.

    National Cancer Institute: PDQ Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Date last modified 11/09/2012. Accessed September 20, 2013.

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            Review Date: 9/20/2013

            Reviewed By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

            The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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