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    ALP - blood test

    Alkaline phosphatase

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a protein found in all body tissues. Tissues with higher amounts of ALP include the liver, bile ducts, and bone.

    A blood test can be done to measure the level of ALP.

    A related test is the ALP isoenzyme test.

    How the Test is Performed

    A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is typically drawn from a veinlocated on the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand.

    How to Prepare for the Test

    You should not to eat or drink anything for 6 hours before the test, unless otherwise instructed by your doctor.

    Many medicines can interfere with blood test results.

    • Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test.
    • Do not stop or change your medications without talking to your doctor first.

    How the Test Will Feel

    You may feel slight pain or a sting when the needle is inserted. You may also feel some throbbing at the site after the blood is drawn.

    Why the Test is Performed

    Reasons the test may be done include:

    • To diagnose liver or bone disease.
    • To check, if treatments for those diseases are working.
    • As part of a routine liver function test.

    Normal Results

    The normal range is 44 to 147 IU/L (international units per liter).

    Normal values may vary slightly from laboratory to laboratory. They also can vary with age and gender. High levels of ALP are normally seen in children undergoing growth spurts and in pregnant women.

    The examples above show the common measurements for results for these tests. Some laboratories use different measurements or may test different specimens.

    What Abnormal Results Mean

    Abnormal results may be due to the following conditions:

    Higher-than-normal ALP levels

    • Biliary obstruction
    • Bone conditions
    • Osteoblastic bone tumors, osteomalacia, a fracture that is healing
    • Liver disease or hepatitis
    • Eating a fatty meal if you have blood type O or B
    • Hyperparathyroidism
    • Leukemia
    • Lymphoma
    • Paget's disease
    • Rickets
    • Sarcoidosis

    Lower-than-normal ALP levels

    • Hypophosphatasia
    • Malnutrition
    • Protein deficiency
    • Wilson's disease

    Other conditions for which the test may be done:

    • Alcoholic liver disease (hepatitis/cirrhosis)
    • Alcoholism
    • Biliary stricture
    • Gallstones
    • Giant cell (temporal, cranial) arteritis
    • Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II
    • Pancreatitis
    • Renal cell carcinoma

    References

    Afdhal NH. Diseases of the gall bladder and bile ducts. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 158.

    Berk P, Korenblat K. Approach to the patient with jaundice or abnormal liver tests. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 149.

    Martin P. Approach to the patient with liver disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 148.

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                Tests for ALP - blood test

                Review Date: 4/29/2013

                Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.

                The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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