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    Arterial stick

    Blood sample - arterial

    An arterial stick is the collection of blood from an artery for laboratory testing.

    How the Test is Performed

    Usually blood is drawn from an artery in the wrist. It may also be drawn from an artery on the inside of the elbow, groin, or other site. A heartbeat (pulse) is felt by pressing on the area above an artery. If blood is drawn at the wrist, thehealth care providerwill usually check the pulseto make sure blood is flowing into the hand from the main arteries in the forearm (radial and ulnar arteries).

    The procedure is as follows:

    • The area is cleaned with antiseptic
    • Aneedle is inserted. A small amount of anesthetic may be injected or applied before the needle is inserted.
    • Blood flows into a specialcollecting syringe.
    • The needle is removed after enough blood is collected.
    • Pressure is applied to the puncture site for 5 - 10 minutes to stop the bleeding. You will be checked during this time to make sure the bleeding stops.

    How to Prepare for the Test

    Preparation varies with the specific test performed.

    How the Test Will Feel

    Puncture of an artery may be more uncomfortable than puncture of a vein. This isbecause arteries are deeper than veins. Arteries alsohave thicker walls and have more nerves.

    When the needle is inserted, there may be somediscomfort or pain. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.

    Why the Test is Performed

    Blood transports oxygen, food, waste products, and other materials within the body. Blood also helps control body temperature, fluids, and the balance of acids and bases.

    Blood is made up of a fluid portion (plasma) and a cellular portion. Plasma contains substances dissolved in the fluid. The cellular portion is made up mainly of red blood cells. But it also includes white blood cells and platelets.

    Because blood has many functions within the body, tests on the blood or its components may give valuable clues to helphealth care providersdiagnose many medical conditions.

    Blood in the arteries (arterial blood) differs from blood in the veins (venous blood) mainly in its content of dissolved gases. Testing arterial blood shows the makeup of the blood before any of its contents are used by the body tissues.

    Normal Results

    Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your health care providerabout the meaning of your specific test results.

    What Abnormal Results Mean

    An arterial stick is done to get blood samples from arteries. Blood samples are mainly taken to measure gases in the arteris.Abnormal results may point tobreathing problems or problems with the body's metabolism. Sometimes arterial sticks are done to get blood culture or blood chemistry samples.

    Risks

    Veins and arteries vary in size from one person to another. They can also vary from one side of the body to the other. Getting a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than from others.

    Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight but may include:

    • Excessive bleeding
    • Fainting or feeling light-headed
    • Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
    • Bruising
    • Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)

    There is a slight risk of damage to nearby tissues when the blood is drawn. Blood can be taken from lower-risk sites, and techniques are used tolimit tissue damage.

    Considerations

    If blood is easier to get from one location or side of your body, let the person who is drawing your blood know before starting the test.

    References

    Milzman D, Janchar T. Arterial puncture and cannulation. In: Roberts JR, Hedges JR, eds. Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2009:chap 20.

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    • Arterial blood sample

      illustration

      • Arterial blood sample

        illustration

      A Closer Look

        Self Care

          Tests for Arterial stick

          Review Date: 1/22/2013

          Reviewed By: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.

          The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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