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    Recognizing medical emergencies

    Medical emergencies - how to recognize them

    Information

    According to the American College of Emergency Physicians, the following are warning signs of a medical emergency:

    • Bleeding that will not stop
    • Breathing problems (difficulty breathing, shortness of breath)
    • Change in mental status (such as unusual behavior, confusion, difficulty arousing)
    • Chest pain
    • Choking
    • Coughing up or vomiting blood
    • Fainting or loss of consciousness
    • Feeling of committing suicide or murder
    • Head or spine injury
    • Severe or persistent vomiting
    • Sudden injury due to a motor vehicle accident, burns or smoke inhalation, near drowning, deep or large wound, etc.
    • Sudden, severe pain anywhere in the body
    • Sudden dizziness, weakness, or change in vision
    • Swallowing a poisonous substance
    • Upper abdominal pain or pressure

    BE PREPARED

    • Determine the location and quickest route to the nearest emergency department before an emergency happens.
    • Keep emergency phone numbers posted by the phone. Everyone in your household, including children, should know when and how to call these numbers. These numbers include:
      • Fire department
      • Police department police
      • Poison control center
      • Ambulance center
      • Your doctors' phone numbers
      • Contact numbers for neighbors or nearby friends or relatives.
      • Work phone numbers
    • Know at which hospital(s) your doctor practices and, if practical, go there in an emergency.
    • Wear a medical identification tag if you have a chronic condition or look for one on a person who has any of the symptoms mentioned.
    • Get a personal emergency response system if you are elderly, especially if you live alone.

    WHAT TO DO IF SOMEONE NEEDS HELP

    • Remain calm, and call your local emergency number (such as 911).
    • Start CPR or rescue breathing, if necessary and if you know the proper technique.
    • Place a semiconscious or unconscious person in the recovery position until the ambulance arrives. DO NOT move the person, however, if there has been or may have been a neck injury.

    Upon arriving at an emergency room, the person will be immediately evaluated. Life- or limb-threatening conditions will be treated first. Persons with conditions that are not life- or limb-threatening may have to wait.

    CALL YOUR LOCAL EMERGENCY NUMBER (SUCH AS 911) IF:

    • The person's condition is life-threatening (for example, the person is having a heart attack or severe allergic reaction)
    • The person's condition could become life-threatening on the way to the hospital
    • Moving the person could cause further injury (for example, in case of a neck injury or motor vehicle accident)
    • The person needs the skills or equipment of paramedics
    • Traffic conditions or distance might cause a delay in getting the person to the hospital

    References

    Blackwell, TH. Emergency Medical Services. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2009: chap 190.

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      A Closer Look

        Self Care

          Review Date: 1/1/2013

          Reviewed By: Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.

          The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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