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    Meningitis - staphylococcal

    Staphylococcal meningitis

    Staphylococcal meningitis is a bacterial infection of the thin tissues covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges).

    See also:

    • Aseptic meningitis
    • Meningitis - cryptococcal
    • Meningitis - Gram-negative
    • Meningitis - H. influenzae
    • Meningitis - meningococcal
    • Meningitis - pneumococcal
    • Meningitis - tuberculous

    Causes

    Staphylococcal meningitis is caused by Staphylococcus bacteria. When it is caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria, it usually develops as a surgerycomplication or an infection spreadthrough the blood from another site.

    Risk factors include:

    • Infections of heart valves
    • Past infection of the brain
    • Past meningitis due to spinal fluid shunts
    • Recent brain surgery
    • Spinal fluid shunt
    • Trauma

    Symptoms

    Symptoms may come on quickly, and include:

    • Fever and chills
    • Mental status changes
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Sensitivity to light (photophobia)
    • Severe headache
    • Stiff neck

    Other symptoms that can occur with this disease:

    • Agitation
    • Bulging fontanelles in infants
    • Decreased alertness
    • Poor feeding or irritability in children
    • Rapid breathing
    • Unusual posture, with the head and neck arched backwards (opisthotonos)

    Exams and Tests

    The doctor or nurse will examine the patient. Thiswill usually show:

    • Fast heart rate
    • Fever
    • Mental status changes
    • Stiff neck

    If the doctor thinks meningitis is possible, alumbar puncture ("spinal tap") is done to remove asample ofspinal fluid (cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF)for testing. If you have a spinal fluid shunt, the sample may be taken from this instead.

    Tests may include:

    • Blood culture
    • Chest x-ray
    • CT scan of the head
    • Gram stain, other special stains, and culture of CSF

    Treatment

    Antibiotics should be started as soon as possible. Vancomycin is the first choice for suspected staphylococcal meningitis. Nafcillin is sometimes used instead.

    Often, treatment will include a search for, and removal of, possible sources of bacteria in the body. These include shunts or artificial heart valves.

    Outlook (Prognosis)

    Early treatment improves the outcome. However, 3 - 5% of patients do not survive. Young children and adults over age 50 have the highest risk of death.

    Staphylococcal meningitis often improves more quickly, with better results, if the source of the infection is removed. The source may include shunts, hardware in joints, or artificial heart valves.

    Possible Complications

    • Brain damage
    • Buildup of fluid between the skull and brain (subdural effusion)
    • Hearing loss
    • Hydrocephalus
    • Seizures
    • Staph infection in another area of the body

    When to Contact a Medical Professional

    Call the local emergency number (such as 911) or go to an emergency room if you suspect meningitis in a young child who has the following symptoms:

    • Feeding problems
    • High-pitched cry
    • Irritability
    • Persistent, unexplained fever

    Call the local emergency number if you develop any of the serious symptoms listed above. Meningitis can quickly become a life-threatening illness.

    Prevention

    In high-risk people, taking preventive antibiotics before diagnostic or surgical procedures may help reduce the risk. Discuss this with your doctor.

    References

    Swartz MN. Meningitis: bacterial, viral, and other. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 360.

    Tunkel AR, Van de Beek D, Scheld WM. Acute meningitis. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009: chap 84.

    Thigpen MC, Whitney CG, Messonnier NE, et al. Emerging Infections Programs Network. Bacterial meningitis in the United States,1998-2007. N Engl J Med. 2011 May 26; 364(21): 2016-25.

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          Tests for Meningitis - staphylococcal

            Review Date: 8/15/2012

            Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.

            The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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