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    Prolactinoma

    Prolactinoma - females; Adenoma - secreting; Prolactin-secreting adenoma of the pituitary

    A prolactinoma is a noncancerous pituitary tumor that produces a hormone called prolactin. This results in too much prolactin in the blood.

    Causes

    Prolactin is a hormone that triggers the breasts to produce milk (lactation).

    Prolactinoma is the most common type of pituitary tumor (adenoma). It makes up at least 30% of all pituitary adenomas.Almost allpituitary tumors are noncancerous (benign). Prolactinoma may occur as part of an inherited condition called multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1)

    Prolactinomas occur most commonly in people under age 40. They are about five times more common in women than in men, but are rare in children.

    At least half of all prolactinomas are very small (less than 1 cm or 3/8 of an inch in diameter). These microprolactinomas are more common in women. Many small tumors stay small and never get larger.

    Larger tumors, called macroprolactinomas, are more common in men. Prolactinomas in men tend to occur at an older age and can grow to a large size before any symptoms appear.

    Symptoms

    In women:

    • Abnormal milk flow from the breast in a woman who is not pregnant or nursing (galactorrhea)
    • Breast tenderness
    • Decreased sexual interest
    • Headache
    • Infertility
    • Stopping of menstruation not related to menopause, or irregular menstruation
    • Vision changes

    In men:

    • Decreased sexual interest
    • Enlargement of breast tissue (gynecomastia)
    • Headache
    • Impotence
    • Infertility
    • Vision changes

    Symptoms caused by pressure from a larger tumor may include:

    • Headache
    • Lethargy
    • Nasal drainage
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Problems with the sense of smell
    • Vision changes
      • Double vision
      • Drooping eyelids
      • Visual field loss

    Note: There may be no symptoms,especially in men.

    Exams and Tests

    • Cranial MRI or cranial CT scan
    • Decreased testosterone levels in men
    • Prolactin levels

    Treatment

    Not everyone needs treatment for prolactinoma.

    Medication is usually successful in treating prolactinoma. Surgery is done in some cases where the tumor may damage vision.

    In women, treatment can improve:

    • Infertility
    • Irregular menstruation
    • Loss of sexual interest
    • Milk flow that is not due to childbirth or nursing

    Men should be treated when they have:

    • Decreased sexual drive
    • Impotence
    • Infertility

    Large prolactinomasusually must be treated to prevent vision loss.

    Bromocriptine and cabergoline are drugs that reduce prolactin levels in both men and women. Some people have to take these drugsfor life, but some people can stop taking them, especially if their tumor has disappeared from the MRI. Ifyou stop taking thedrug, however, there is a risk thatthe tumor may grow and produce prolactin again, especially if it is a large tumor.

    Most people respond well to these drugs. However, large prolactinomas are harder to treat. Both drugs may cause dizziness and upset stomach.

    Radiotherapy is usuallyonly usedin patients with prolactinoma that continues to grow or gets worse after both medication and surgery. It may be given in the form of:

    • Conventional radiation
    • Gamma knife or stereotactic radiosurgery -- a type of radiation therapy thatfocuses high-powered x-rays on a small area in the brain.

    Outlook (Prognosis)

    The outlook depends on the success of medicaltreatment or surgery. Getting tested to check whether the tumor has returned after treatmentis important.

    Treatment for prolactinoma may change the levels of other hormones in the body, especially if surgery is performed.

    High levels of estrogen or testosterone may be involved in the growth of a prolactinoma. Women with prolactinomas should be followed closely during pregnancy, and should discuss this tumor with their health care provider before taking birth control pills.

    When to Contact a Medical Professional

    See your health care provider if you have any symptoms of prolactinoma.

    If you have had a prolactinoma in the past, call your health care provider for a general follow-up, or ifyour symptoms return.

    References

    Melmed S, Kleinberg D. Pituitary masses and tumors. In: Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 9.

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    • Endocrine glands

      illustration

      • Endocrine glands

        illustration

      Tests for Prolactinoma

        Review Date: 12/11/2011

        Reviewed By: Nancy J. Rennert, MD, Chief of Endocrinology & Diabetes, Norwalk Hospital, Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

        The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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